We try hard to talk to garden and peony enthusiasts worldwide, as much as we can. Nowadays, much interaction takes place via e-mail and Facebook. We also pick up many unclear peony questions and topics on the plant markets and garden fairs which we attend to, or participate in. Also from the people visiting our nursery or website we receive many questions regarding peonies. All these things have enabled us to sum up the most frequently asked questions here for you - of course together with the answers..!

How many different peonies are there?
How do I discover the name of the peony in my garden?
How old can peonies get?
What is the difference between tree peonies, herbaceous peonies and intersectional peonies or Itoh-hybrids?
5. Why does my peony plant not produce any flowers?
Why are there ants on my peony flowers?
Can peonies be planted in a shady location?
Do peonies require a certain type of soil?
What is the best time to plant peonies?
What is the best planting distance for peonies?
Do peonies have to be dug and divided every few years, just like many other herbaceous perennials?
12. Can I move a well estabilished peony plant?

13. Why do the flower buds of my peonies sometimes get aborted, well before their flowering time?
Do all peonies smell good?
 Why do the flowers of my newly planted peony not look like I expected?
 When will my newly planted peonies flower?
Do peony flowers change colour?
Should I deadhead peony flowers when they are finished?
19. Do I need to fertilize my peonies?
 Do all peonies require mechanical support?
 Why do the stems of my peonies rot away at soil level?
 When and how should the foliage be removed?
23. Can I grow peonies from seed?
Will peonies grow well in pots or containers?
Why are there large differences in price between peony varieties?
Is it recommendable to buy potted peonies?
27. What should I do when my question is not in this list?


1. How many different peonies are there?
It is not very clear how many botanical species there are on this earth. It is commonly accepted to use the Classification according to Stern; in this case there are little over 40 different herbaceous peony species.
If you're question is how many different varieties have been given to this world the answer is not an exact number. Every year many new varieties become registered. But there are many thousands of peonies registered already! A fantastic database of this very long list is the Web Project Paeonia of Carsten Burkhardt from Germany (see our Links section). We try to catch the finest species and varieties from this enormous sea of peonies and create a distinctive catalogue with these babies.
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2. How do I discover the name of the peony in my garden?
To identify peony varieties is a difficult challenge. On the internet one can find many pictures and descriptions of varieties, this can be very helpfull - if you have the patience for it of course. You can always turn to us with questions like these. However, we really need a little bit more information than just "can you help me with the name of my peony, it's white and flowers in June?.... Please give us as much information as you can and try to keep a detailed record during growing and flowering season. Good characteristics to look for are e.g. bush habit (is it compact growing?), plant height, flowering period (also in comparison with other varieties that you have or know), flower form, fragrance and colour, stem colour, leaf colour and form, seed carpels, fall colouring etc. Also information regarding your plants' origin can be of great help (place and year of purchase or receipt). The more detailed information you can provide us with, the greater the chance will be that we will be able to help you.
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3. How old can peonies get?
When peonies grow under great circumstances they can last a lifetime. A peony planted by yourself can literally survive you..... There are not many peonies with this kind of sustainability!

Unfortunately, nowadays' reality is that a perfectly happy peony will not often grow older than 25 years of age on one location. This has nothing to do with the plant itself, but has everything to do with the owner of it... Few people live for over 25 years in the same house, and changes in areas and gardens often follow-up eachother in a much shorter time span. This is really a huge shame, as we still so often hear from very grateful people that the nostalgia of peonies as heirloom is just invaluable.
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4. What is the difference between tree peonies, herbaceous peonies and intersectional peonies or Itoh-hybrids?
- Tree peonies have woody stems that are winterhardy, much like other shrubs. Shrub peonies would most likely be a better name for this group, as the word "tree" would make one think that they can grow that high, while in reality they will never grow taller than 2 meters (7 feet). The leaves die back each autumn. Most buds from were the following season's growth will emerge from are formed on the woody stems. Winterhardiness of tree peonies is less than that of herbaceous or intersectional peonies.

- Herbaceous peonies die back each fall to soil level entirely. All buds from where next year's growth will come from are located beneath soil level.

- Intersectional hybrids, much referred to as Itoh-hybrids' are the magnificent result of crosses between tree and herbaceous peonies. Just like herbaceous peonies all above surface growth dies back each fall. Incidentally woody parts can remove above soil level. Nearly all buds from where next season's growth will emerge from are located beneath soil level. In general one could say that an intersectional hybrid behaves like an herbaceous peony, but it has the looks of a tree peony.
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5. Why does my peony not produce any flowers?
This is a very often asked question. Nine times out of ten we can answer this question with two simple terms: Origin or Location.

Origin; Where and in what way you have acquired your peonies often proves to be crucial for the succeeding of these plants. Often, peonies in garden centers are offered in very small pot sizes. Consequently these pots have very small planters with minimal potential and vigor. Small plants also very easily get planted to deep, resulting in poor, or lack of, flowering. Warmerdam Paeonia only offers heavy plants with a mature root system and at least 3-5 buds.
Peonies can easily become heirlooms. Replanting a well-established plant in one piece nearly always results in lack of flowering. More on this particular subject you can read at question# 12.

Location; The spot you give your peony to grow on has a crucial decisive influence for its flourishing. When this planting location is too wet, too dark, too deep, too close to large trees or shrubs or when a peony has stood there before the peonies will flower poorly and in the worst case they will wither. Peonies require a free and virginal planting location which is well permeable, has good drainage, recieves good sunshine.
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6. Why are there ants on my peony flowers?
Ants always have a sweet tooth! The buds of peonies produce a sweet substance, much like a sirup. This is what attracts the ants, sometimes it looks like a complete army is having a feast on the peony buds! The ants do not harm the peony bud itself in any way. The sticky substance protects the closed buds as long as the flowering is developing inside. When the buds show color the production of this sweet substance is reducing. With the opening of the flowers this sirup will vanish and with it so will the ants. By high exception only you will get ants in your house when you cut off a flower from your garden peonies to enjoy in the vase!
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7. Can peonies be planted in a shady location?
Peonies perform best in full sun. They are planted this way in our fields as well. On the whole, the following is true: The more sunshine, the more flowers.
However, in extremely sunny summers some afternoon-shade can keep the leaves more healthy and green. Damage to flower buds by (night) frosts can be a bit less on locations where there is some morning shade. When frozen flower buds warm up too quickly the cells can 'drown', which result in the characteristic brown colouring of these flower buds.

Not all shade is alike. We recommend a peony plant to be planted in a location which can have an average of 5-8 hours of sunshine per day. At least 5 if this is in the middle of the day, and at least 8 if this e.g. is mainly early in the morning and later ein the evening. Every variety has its own requirements which are not thoroughly known. Some varieties can withstand less light, such as e.g. 'Cytherea' (this variety even prefers some afternoon shade). Some light shade can also have a positive effect on the color intensity of the flowers. Fading of flowers is of course accelerated in the full sun. Some light shade can also benefit the duration of flowering.
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8. Do peonies require a certain type of soil?
The main importance for a good soil for peonies is that it has a no soil structure deterioration and that it has good drainage. When a soil stays too wet, certainly around the crown of the plants, peonies will not survive. Clay or loam soils are in general ideal soil types for peonies. When the water management of the soil is in order peonies will thrive here; these soils generally speaking will give the best and heaviest stems and largest flowers with the highest color intensity.
Peaty soils are also excellent, again only with the right water management. Be careful with fertilizing on these generally rich soils, too much nutrients will certainly cost you flowers. Peony flower productions is especially sensitive for too much nitrogen.

Sandy soils are the ones that require the most work and attention. In principal, peonies can grow just fine on these types of soil. Characteristic for sandy soils is that they bind little moisture and nutrients. Of course this provides splendid drainage, but this also allows nutrients to leach easily; a pure sandy soil operates like a colander. Therefore it is important to improve the soil before planting peonies on sandy soils. Aim should be to improve the binding capacity of the soil for moisture and nutrients. Adding clay particles and organic matter will do the trick. Mixing in peat, bentonite and compost is a good way to enrich your sandy soil or plant hole. Using organical fertilizers always on sandy soils will help to maintain soil improvements.
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9. What is the best time to plant peonies?
In fall!
Under the influence of the lowering temperatures and shorter days peonies are entering dormancy. This process is always initiated in fall (September-October). This is the best time to dig, process and replant peonies. In an average year it is truely ideal to plant peonies in October. In this situation the plants have been dug and processed in a dormant condition, resulting in fresh and unharmed product. Newly planted peonies in October gratefully use the last bits of warmth left in the soil. They will send out many feeder roots, resulting in a nicely established plant before winter sets in.
When peonies are planted in spring they will immediately focus on above-surface growth, without having been able to establish themselves in the soil. This leads to an unbalance during the entire growing season resulting into minimal growth the first year. Planting in fall gives a superior result without any doubt.
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10. What is the best planting distance for peonies?
This is very depending on the purpose of your planting. Peonies can make fantastic solitary plants in the garden, and they can be just as breathtaking when planted in groups or in a row. Each situation has its own ideal planting distance. When planting in groups we recommend you space all plants evenly from each other (we call this planting in 'context'). In all directions distance between two plants will be exactly the same this way. To ensure good air circulation and to prevent competition of root systems, we advise you to space plants at least 60cm (2 ft.) apart. Distance is measured from the crown of each plant (the plant part where the eyes are growing from). Of course the ideal planting distance can vary per variety or specie. For specific questions or a planting plan for your situation you of course best contact us.
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11. Do peonies have to be dug and divided every few years, just like many other herbaceous perennials?
When peonies perform well they are truely best left alone. Peonies are plants which really need their time to get mature on their planting location. The longer peonies are in one place, the more flowers they generally produce. What's more is that peony flowers become larger, achieve higher colour intensity and become even more beautiful - certainly during their first 5 years.
Only when peonies do not perform as expected or hoped for, or when they have to be relocated due to e.g. moving to another residence it is ethically allowed to move your peonies.
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12. Can I move a well established peony plant?
Of course this is possible. But not in one piece!
Old peony plants that are relocated as a whole usually eat from their old reserves and lack all stimulants to activate new growth. Due to this they will only produce foliage and no flowers.
Before replanting, always treat mature plants (older than 3 year) as followed: Dig up you peonies in early fall (September). Dig wide enough around the plant and lift it. Using a digging fork usually works well, however be careful not to break this tool in your enthusiasm!
Wash off the soil, e.g. using a garden hose. Divide the plant in a number of pieces, make sure each piece has at least 3-5 eyes (buds) with a nice amount of roots to support them. Trim back all roots to a length of about 15-20 cm (6-8 inches). Find a suitable and most importantly a fresh new planting location for your new plants and you will see that peonies sure can flourish amazingly well after replanting.
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13. Why do the flower buds of my peonies sometimes get aborted, well before their flowering time?
Frost damage or stress is the most common cause of this phenomenon. Late night frosts, a long dry spell during the strong growth season, water damage etc. are factors that can seriously damage flower buds. These are causes of nature which do not necessarily occur year after year if they have happened this year. When you do have aborted flower buds in your peonies each year we can imagine one of the following things causing this:

  • Your plants are in a very shady location. Peonies continue to grow vegetatively when they get too little sunlight and initially developed flower buds get aborted.
  • Your plants are planted too deep. When the crown of the plants is located too deep under soil level these plants will not flower. These plants will put all its energy in its subsoil growth to move the crown upwards. One could say these plants are forming new plants on top of themselves to get the crown at the right depth. This is a very time consuming process, and usually takes longer than your patience is... In the mean time the aerial resul is foliage and no flowers.
  • Your plants are young and newly planted. Peonies initiate bud (eyes) growth in the fall season. Your newly purchased plants have been dug and processed in this sime time of year. During processing plants are divided and roots are trimmed to make powerfull growth possible on their future planting location. The eyes are formed on the mother plant and flower initiation took place there. However, after being processed, these flowers have to develop on a strongly reduced root system. Often these roots cannot provide the nutrition those flowers will need, resulting in an early stage flower bud abortion. Upon maturing of these plants this phenomenon will dissappear.
  • Your plants have been relocated in one piece after having grown on another spot for years.
    For more explanation see the answer given at the previous question (Question No. 12).
  • Your plants have been infected with leaf nematodes. These little buggers do not only feed themselves in the leaves, but also in the flower buds. They sting the cells of the flower buds and feed on their contents. This will cause these cells to die and make the flower buds "dry out". This is a very hard to fight problem. Best way is to start with healthy plants and the best way to make sure of this is to only buy plants at the well-established and specialized peony grower. Infections that have actually happened in private gardens we have heard of by high exception only - you would be very unlucky if this misfortune would strike you. You can recognize an infection of leaf nematodes by black spots which are defined by the leaf veins.
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14. Do all peonies smell good?
One could easily say that peonies have a lovely fragrance. General rule of thumb is that the more flower petals a variety has, the stronger their fragrance will be. Also generally speaken it can be said that lactiflora-varieties have a stronger odeur than varieties from other species or hybrids. However, there are very many exceptions to this very general guidelines!!! For each variety or specie in our catalogue we have added a remark regarding fragrance. Our 5 personal favourites among the fragrant peonies we have in our assortment are the following varieties: White Cap, Ann Cousins, Wladyslawa, Pecher and Bowl of Cream.
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15. Why do the flowers of my newly planted peony not look like I expected?
You have planted your peony on its fresh growing location only recentely. At the most it has experienced only one winter season. Newly planted peonies often produce different flowers than would be typical for their variety. When these plants grow more mature so will their flowers. Especially full double varieties can display more single or semi-double flowers in their first and second growing season. The maturing process of peonies usually takes 2 or 3 years and in this time the number of flower petals will increase: flowers become more double. When the plants get settled on their new planting spot the colour intensity will often increase as well.
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16. When will my newly planted peonies flower?
Peonies purchased at Warmerdam Paeonia can produce flowers already in their first year. Our plants will have enough root mass and mature eyes to be be able to flower this soon. Whether they actually wìll, is too much depending on factors beyond our control (like e.g. the planting, the time between receipt of the plants and planting, the planting location, the weather circumstances in their first winter etc.).
We can only speak for plants purchased from us. For us to say something about plants acquired elsewhere is too difficult because there is too much variation in supply quality out there. In general one could say that no matter how small the plant in general is at time of purchase; within 3 years and with only average growth one or more flowers has to be produced. When planted in the right time of year (autumn) and in a suitable location of course.
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17. Do peony flowers change colour?
Processes in all living things are always and ever ongoing - of course the development of peony flowers is no exception. When a flower matures processes and functions within the plant change. Primary goal of the flower is to lure insects, after a little while this changes to the seed production for survival. During this process flower petals wilt or fall off. The flowering of a peony flower usually starts off very intense and works her way up to a climax: the flower is at her finest. Beyond this point the flower starts her journey downhill: the colours get more pale or can even change. Red usually colours toward the purple spectrum and pink more towards the white. Very pretty exceptions are e.g. 'Coral Charm' and 'Coral Sunset'. These hybrids start their flowering with deep-pink colourtones, shifting to the orange spectrum and finally finish off with a creamy yellow, nearly white colour.

Sunlight and ruling temperatures are also very determining for the flower colour and its intensity. Lots of sun usually leads to paler colours. A cold and dark spring makes white varieties usually less appealing and bicoloured varieties often benefit from such springs; it makes their characteristic and often contrasting colour accents come forward even more.

Sometimes we receive the question if peonies can change colour from e.g. red to white. We do not believe so. When this has occured in your garden we think that this would be an unique mutation and a wonderous play of nature.
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18. Should I deadhead peony flowers when they are finished?
There is not just one good answer to this question. It is a matter of personal taste and depending on the species or varieties that you have in your garden.

Many peonies produce very attractive seed pods, especially single and Japenese type peonies. Leaving these on the plant after flowering can be of great ornamental value for a garden peony. What's more is that viable seed can grow from them, which can be very appealing to the hobby gardener.
Many of the large flowering full double varieties are sterile, and the finished flowers are often not very pretty anymore. However, it always remains a matter of personal taste. When you are uncertain of what you like or what would be nicest for your particular situation or variety, we always like to recommend the following: Just give it a try the next growing season and see how it goes!
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19. Do I need to fertilize my peonies?
Peonies are large consumers of nutrients. How much you should add to your soil is depending on the type and state of your garden soil. Taking a soil sample, having this analyzed by a specialized laboratory and requesting for a fertilizer recipe on the results is the best way to go.
General guidelines can work also, a soil sample of course does cost money. Heavier types of soil (loam, clay) are generally richer on nutrients and are capable of binding these better than lighter types of soil (sand). Organic fertilizers will help maintaining a good level of soil life and usually break down more gradually than artificial fertilizers. A combination of these is also fine and this is what we usually recommend: Apply a handfull of dried cowdung granulates in the fall (about 2 weeks after cutting back the folliage) and a handfull of mixed fertilizer (e.g. with a NPK-ratio of 12-10-18) very early summer (right after flowering). Always try to work added fertilizers through the soil, safest way to do this is to just use your fingers. It is better to apply fertilizers around the center of a peony plant rather than in the center. Fertilizers could cause some burning otherwhise and it will be too hard or damaging to work the granulates through the soil. What's more is that most feeder roots are situated a little ways from the center of the plant.
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20. Do all peonies require mechanical support?
No. In our catalogue we mention clearly for each variety or specie whether or not they need (mechanical) support. We have divided our assortment into 3 categories:

  • No support. This category includes all intersectional hybrids and most early hybrids.
  • Ring. Whether or not to (mechanically) support peonies in this group is a matter of taste. These peonies have a less compact plant habit. Without support stems can bend over, which provides a very lively effect. In a somewhat sheltered plant site the flowers of peonies belonging to this category will seldomly touch the ground without (mechanical) support.
  • Staking. Peonies that we have classified to this category are best tied up. It mostly concerns varieties with very large and heavy flowers compared to the sturdiness of the stems. With very poor weather the flowers fill up with rain water and when the wind gets a hold of them then these stems could break of fall down to the ground. A nice discrete support material (e.g. green stakes) will help keeping these peonies gorgeous. In our catalogue there is only the odd variety that belongs to this group.
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21. Why do the stems of my peonies rot away at soil level?
Very likely a fungal infection is the cause of this. In 'professional peony language' in Holland these are called "fall-overs". Peonies are sensitive to a number of moulds, and especially early in spring during cold and wet weather circumstances. The most common pathogen infection to peonies is known as 'Grey Mould' (Botrytis paeoniae). Best known treatment is the immediate removal of all infected plant parts and disposing them with care in a plastic bag directly. Make sure not to spread any spores to healthy plant parts when doing this. Good prevention is achieved in case of a free plant site (good air circulation, especially in the lower half of the bush), and when foliage is removed in a proper manner in the autumn. Chemical control is also an option, please make inquiries for the possibilities at your local garden center. Of course prevention is always better than cure!
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22. When and how should the foliage be removed?
The foliage of a peony produces and stores nutrients. At the very end of the growing season the plant will transport these nutrients to the subsoil plant parts for storage to survive the winter and to start up the next growing season. When over half of the green has disappeared from the foliage it is safe to cut back the foliage, at soil level. In an average year this will be in the course of October. Leaving a few centimers (an inch) of stem behind does no harm and will always be a good reminder of where you're peonies are at exactly. When you are finished with this chore your peonies are ready for wintertime.

When you would cut back the foliage of peonies prematurely you will deprive the plants from crucial nutrients. Peonies are very tough perennials and most likely will survive actions like these a couple of times. However, you will be guaranteed that this will cost the plants some serious growth in the following season and chances are high that they will not flower that season.
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23. Can I grow peonies from seed?
Of course you can! Many peony varieties are fertile and capable of producing viable seed. This however is not a good way for expanding your stock of those peonies. Seed of cultivated peonies have a large variability, often resulting in a surprising outcome. If you would like more plants of the same variety your only options are to either purchase some more, or to vegetatively propagate them (by dividing the roots). This is in contrast with peony species in the wild, the seed of these plants is often more true to specie due to the fact that their natural habitat has a very limited (peony) gene pool.

Peony seed is harvested when it is ripe. This usually means that the seed pods will crack open and that the seeds have turned dark grey, dark brownish or black. It is best to plant them out immediately or shortly after harvesting. This way drying out of the seeds is prevented. When peony seeds dry out to much they skip a season and will only germinate after their second winter. When planted directly after harvesting a very large percentage will send out a long feeder root within three months. In their first growing season one small leaf will grow. When left in the same site a flower can be formed as soon as in their fourth growing season, and in their sixth year at the latest. For a fair judgement of the variety you best leave them be for another 2 years so that the plant can show its true identity when it has grown to maturity. Growing peonies from seed is very interesting, fun and full of expectations. We can recommend it to all of you!
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24. Will peonies grow well in pots or containers?
This is possible, but it is not simple! Successfull growth in pot or containers requires dedication and special attention.

Crucial for the success of a peony in pot or container is the use of an aerid soil which can hold moisture and nutrients well, but at the same time never stays too wet. Infallible drainage inside the pot or container is of the greatest importance. Do not plant a peony in a pot or container any later than October. This way the plant can still send out feeder roots before winter sets in.
The nutrient condition in a pot listens far more closely than that in open soil. Peonies are large-scale consumers of nutrients, regular fertilizing with the proper elements will be necessary. The danger of the pot soil and peony drying out in wintertime is another important point of attention. Strong and/or lasting frost periods in combination with wind can make them dry out too much resulting in irreparable damage. Peonies however do need a sufficient cold sum to break dormancy again, so moving the pots indoors in wintertime is not a good option.

The succeeding of a peony plant in a pot or container also depends on the size of these pots. Peonies are herbaceous perennials with a large root system, for this reason the following general rule of thumb applies: The larger the pot or container, the better. Use a pot with a light colour. Black or dark pots can heat up too much in summertime, the plant's root system can damage severely because of this.

There is no guidebook for the success of peonies in a pot. Considering all that is said here you can experiment what will give the best results in your particular situation. Good luck!
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25. Why are there large differences in price between peony varieties?
Prices of peony plants are determined by supply and demand. Sometimes there are large differences. The lowest priced varieties are usually quite 'common'; they are professionally grown on a fairly large scale and are available on a great number of points of sales. Also these varieties usually propagate relatively fast. The highest priced varieties are often rare and much sought after. Sometimes culture of these varieties is difficult and propagation is often slow. Some of these varieties will only be available at Warmerdam Paeonia.
There can also be price differences for a certain variety between the prices we charge and those of other offerers. There are always good reasons for this, like e.g. production methods, business methods, supply quality, service etc. Also sometimes we ascribe special value to certain varieties because e.g. we want to expand our stock of a variety or because we grow a special selection of such a variety.
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26. Is it recommendable to buy potted peonies?
Our honest answer to this question would be no. We have several arguments for this:

  • Peonies are plants with an extensive root system. This simply needs space which they cannot get in pots. Roots are often trimmed, just to fit in the pot size. Next to the fact that is truely a shame, this also gives the plant a lot of stress.
  • Far too often peonies are sold in a very small pot. Naturally these pots contain a very small peony plant as well which in any case will not be capable to produce flowers the first two years. What's more is that such small planters are very easily planted too deep, causing them to flower even later, or in the worst case will not even survive.
  • In too many cases peonies sold in pots are not exactly first grade material. Often these are 'left-overs' from growers. These plants have been stored too long resulting into damaging their vitality. Plant health and whether or not they are true to variety are also still issues for potted peonies.
  • Planted in a pot, the roots of peonies do not have to 'search' for moisture and nutrition; after al everything they need is nearby - inside the pot. Because of this peonies form a very fine root structure. When plants are sold in a pot they can often still bloom this first time (when pot size is sufficiently large) because there is still good food storage left in the old roots which was built up in previous growing seasons while these plants were still in the open field. When these plants are planted out in the garden they hardly ever flower in their second growing season. This in contrast with the (quite rightly) expectations at time of purchaase. After their first winter in a pot peonies need one to two years to recover from this unnatural growth. After this period they will have grown sufficiently large roots to support flower production again.
  • For us it is a fact that offering peonies in a pot serves commercial purposes only. The product is visually more attractive this way: It sells better. Another disadvantage of potted peonies is the time of year that they are offered for sales: in spring. For peonies the very best planting time is in the fall season (September/October).

All issues mentioned here contribute greatly to the poor name peonies still have regarding flowering. Too often we get to hear "They don't flower for me". And this just is not right. Therefore our statement peonies are best not purchased in a pot.
We try our hardest to give peonies a better name, because they really simply deserve it! We only supply peonies in the appropriate time of year for them (fall season). All we supply is bare roots of the highest quality. We try to promote this way of selling peonies as much as we can.
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27. What should I do when my question is not in this list?
Please first take your time and scroll through the rest of the Information Section of this website. When you still did not find an answer to your question then, of course you are always welcome to contact us! We are always happy to answer your peony questions. And should your question be a "Frequently Asked Question"; of course we will happily add it to this list!
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